Department of Radiology

The PET Center operates various small animal PET, SPECT, and CT scanners for different research and scanning needs.


SPECT scanner: The MiLabs U-SPECT+ is a small animal SPECT scanner which has 3 Ultra-Large Stationary NaI(Tl) broadband detector arrays (595 mm x 472 mm each) with digital electronics. The scanner utilizes multi-pinhole collimators. Each pinhole has a size of 0.6 mm. The field of view is 44 mm. Resolution is 0.4 mm. Listmode scanning of whole body or focused area is available. Multi-tracer acquisition through retrospective energy windowing is available. Heating and anesthesia are integrated into the mouse bed. Cardiac and respiratory monitoring and gating are also available during the scan.

Small animal PET scanner: The Philips MOSAIC HP Small Animal PET scanner is available for performing PET scans. This system has high spatial resolution (2 mm), with high sensitivity and large transverse imaging field-of-view of 12.8 cm. The imaging aperture is 20 cm and the axial length is 12 cm. Cardiac- or respiration-gated acquisition modes are available.

Small animal microCT: A NIH Shared Instrumentation Grant was used to purchase a small animal microCT scanner from ImTek, Inc. This system has a spatial resolution of ~100 micron, and provides anatomical images to complement the PET and SPECT data. A CT scan of each animal can be performed routinely, immediately before or after obtaining the functional PET/SPECT data, to provide accurate image registration for anatomical localization and region-of-interest delineation.

Anesthesia system: We operate an isoflurane anesthesia system (VetEquip Inc., Pleasanton, CA) specifically designed for use with small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The system comprises several induction boxes for the safe initial anesthesia of mice and rats, with custom-made nose-cones used for maintaining anesthesia throughout the PET session. We can also monitor animals using a computerized veterinary monitoring system (Small Animal Instruments, Inc., Stony Brook, NY).

Computers/software: There is a MacPro imaging workstation available for viewing and analyzing images. We have commercial analysis software such as Amira (Indeed Visual Concepts, Germany), Amide (UCLA), and Osirix (Pixmeo, Switzerland).

Cyclotron and radiochemistry facility: The cyclotron facility houses a Japan Steel Works BC3015, 30 MeV cyclotron and an IBA 18 MeV Cyclone machine. The JSW cyclotron is capable of accelerating p, d, 3He, and 4He. Beam currents of 10-20 mA are typical with a maximum current capability of 30-40 mA. We use protons at 22 MeV to produce 11C, 13N and most 18F-labeled tracers, and deuterons at 11 MeV for 15O, 18F-DOPA and 18F-EF-5, (the latter two are produced from 18F gas). The IBA cyclotron provides for higher beam currents than are available on the JSW machine. Specifically, the 18F- production yield increases from 1.5 Ci to 10 Ci and 11C yield increases from 1 Ci to 2.5 Ci, thereby increasing yields of research tracers. While the JSW can only irradiate 1 target at a time, the IBA is capable of irradiating 2 targets simultaneously.


Equipment Rate
PET $300 per 1/2 day session
SPECT $300 per 1/2 day session
MicroCT $100 per hour

There are a variety of radiotracers available, and an additional charge applies depending upon the particular radiotracer used. Please contact Joel Karp at for more information.


Joel Karp, PhD
Director, Nuclear Medicine Sub-Core and Professor of Radiologic Physics in Radiology 
Phone: 215-662-3073

Eric Blankemeyer
Technical Director, Nuclear Medicine Sub-Core
Phone: 215-898-4215

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