These actual case reports in Penn’s complex cases series reveal the intricacy, sophistication, and complexity of the surgeries performed every day at Penn Otorhinolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery.
Case Study from our Complex Cases Series
Nithin A. Adappa, MD Assistant Professor of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Mr. R, a 49 y/o male presented to the ER with a grand mal seizure and on imaging demonstrated significant pneumocephalus (Figure 1). Mr. R’s medical history included a history of motor vehicle accident at age nine with multiple neurosurgical procedures including a shunt.
Imaging demonstrated air tracking intracranially from the left posterior ethmoid skull base with a meningoencephalocele in the ethmoid cavity (Figure 2), subsequently confirmed by MRI (not shown). Mr. R was taken to the OR for an endoscopic repair. At this time, he was noted on CT scan (Figure 3) to have an active CSF leak from the corresponding site. The leak was repaired with an underlay bone graft and an overlay vascularized nasoseptal flap. At two months, post-operative imaging demonstrates resolution of pneumocephalus and an intact bone graft with the overlying nasoseptal flap (Figure 4).
This case highlights an unusual presentation of a CSF leak as the patient was not displaying symptoms of CSF rhinorrhea. The source of the pneumocephalus was not initially apparent, but close evaluation of the CT scan demonstrated both a skull base defect at the posterior ethmoid roof with meningoencephalocele and smaller pockets of intracranial air tracking adjacent to the site. While Mr. R’s motor vehicle accident occurred 40 years previously, it is likely he had a defect from that time and long-standing increased intracranial pressures despite his shunt predisposed him to this condition. Given the increased pressures, it is important to place a rigid graft (in this case a bone graft) rather than a soft tissue reconstruction to help minimize recurrence. A vascularized pedicled flap also aids in rapid healing of the site.