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Geoffrey Aguirre, MD, PhD

Geoffrey Aguirre, MD, PhD Physician

Associate Professor of Neurology

Dr. Aguirre is employed by Penn Medicine.

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Clinical Specialties


  • Neurology

Programs & Centers:

Board Certification:

  • Neurology, 2005

Clinical Expertise:

  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell's Palsy
  • Charcot Marie Tooth Disease (CMT)
  • Concussion
  • Epilepsy
  • Facial Nerve Pain (Neuralgia)
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)
  • Headache
  • Memory Disorders
  • Movement Disorders
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
  • Nerve Root Pain
  • Neuromuscular Disorders
  • Neuropathy
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Peripheral Nerve Disorders
  • Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Radiculopathy
  • Stroke
  • Tinnitus
  • Transient Ischemic Attack
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  • Trigeminal Nerve Disorders
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
  • Vertigo
View More

Practice Locations and Appointments

Insurance Accepted

  • Aetna US Healthcare
  • Cigna
  • Cigna HealthSpring
  • Clover Health Plan
  • CVS Health
  • Devon Health Services (Americare)
  • eLAP Services
  • Gateway Health Plan
  • Geisinger Health Plan
  • HealthAmerica / HealthAssurance, a Coventry Plan
  • HealthPartners
  • HealthPartners Medicare
  • HealthSmart
  • Highmark Blue Shield
  • Homestead Smart Health Plans
  • Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey
  • Humana / Choicecare
  • Independence Blue Cross (Keystone East)
  • Intergroup
  • Keystone First
  • Keystone First Medicare
  • Multiplan
  • NJ Medicaid
  • NJ Qualcare
  • Oxford Health Plan
  • PA Health and Wellness (Centene) Medicare
  • PA Medicaid
  • PA Medicare
  • Preferred Health Care/LGH
  • Provider Partners Health Plan
  • Rail Road Medicare / Palmetto GBA
  • Remedy Partners at Penn Medicine
  • Tricare
  • United Healthcare
  • UnitedHealthcare Community Plan
  • US Family Health Plan
  • Veterans Choice Program

Education and Training

Medical School: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Residency: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania


American Academy of Neurology, National Cognitive Neuroscience Society, International National Science Foundation, ad-hoc grant reviewer, National Optical Society of America, National Organization for Human Brain Mapping, International Sensory Perception and Cognition (SPC) NIH study section, National Vision Sciences Society, International

Hospital Affiliation

Dr. Aguirre is employed by Penn Medicine.

Hospital Privileges:

  • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.
  • Penn Presbyterian Medical Center: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.
  • Pennsylvania Hospital: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.


Description of Research Expertise:

I study human cortical organization for vision, and how this organization is altered by neurologic and ophthalmologic disease. Human visual cortex is composed of early, “retinotopically” organized visual areas, as well as more specialized, “categorical” areas that process specific visual features (such as facial appearance). My work has varied along two dimensions within this research space: scale and perturbation. I have examined the organization of visual cortex from its large-scale, anatomical arrangement to the precise and subtle form of population neural coding for object features. These studies at different scales of cortical organization have further been conducted both in healthy controls as well as in patients for whom visual function has been perturbed by retinal disease or cerebral dysfunction. I make use of a variety of scientific techniques, although the majority of my research uses BOLD fMRI, which is a non-invasive measure of neural activity in human participants.

Selected Publications:

McAdams Harrison, Igdalova Aleksandra, Spitschan Manuel, Brainard David H, Aguirre Geoffrey K: Pulses of Melanopsin-Directed Contrast Produce Highly Reproducible Pupil Responses That Are Insensitive to a Change in Background Radiance. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 59 (13): 5615-5626,2018.

Mattar Marcelo G, Wymbs Nicholas F, Bock Andrew S, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Grafton Scott T, Bassett Danielle S: Predicting future learning from baseline network architecture. NeuroImage 172 : 107-117,2018.

Irwin David J, McMillan Corey T, Xie Sharon X, Rascovsky Katya, Van Deerlin Vivianna M, Coslett H Branch, Hamilton Roy, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Lee Edward B, Lee Virginia M Y, Trojanowski John Q, Grossman Murray: Asymmetry of post-mortem neuropathology in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia. Brain : a journal of neurology 141 (1): 288-301,2018.

Mattar Marcelo G, Olkkonen Maria, Epstein Russell A, Aguirre Geoffrey K: Adaptation decorrelates shape representations. Nature communications 9 (1): 3812,2018.

Aguirre Geoffrey K, Butt Omar H, Datta Ritobrato, Roman Alejandro J, Sumaroka Alexander, Schwartz Sharon B, Cideciyan Artur V, Jacobson Samuel G: Postretinal Structure and Function in Severe Congenital Photoreceptor Blindness Caused by Mutations in the GUCY2D Gene. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 58 (2): 959-973,2017.

Olkkonen Maria, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Epstein Russell A: Expectation modulates repetition priming under high stimulus variability. Journal of vision 17 (6): 10,2017.

Spitschan Manuel, Bock Andrew S, Ryan Jack, Frazzetta Giulia, Brainard David H, Aguirre Geoffrey K: The human visual cortex response to melanopsin-directed stimulation is accompanied by a distinct perceptual experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (46): 12291-12296,2017.

Spitschan Manuel, Datta Ritobrato, Stern Andrew M, Brainard David H, Aguirre Geoffrey K: Human Visual Cortex Responses to Rapid Cone and Melanopsin-Directed Flicker. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 36 (5): 1471-82,2016.

Aguirre Geoffrey K, Datta Ritobrato, Benson Noah C, Prasad Sashank, Jacobson Samuel G, Cideciyan Artur V, Bridge Holly, Watkins Kate E, Butt Omar H, Dain Aleksandra S, Brandes Lauren, Gennatas Efstathios D: Patterns of Individual Variation in Visual Pathway Structure and Function in the Sighted and Blind. PloS one 11 (11): e0164677,2016.

Downs Louise M, Scott Erin M, Cideciyan Artur V, Iwabe Simone, Dufour Valerie, Gardiner Kristin L, Genini Sem, Marinho Luis Felipe, Sumaroka Alexander, Kosyk Mychajlo S, Swider Malgorzata, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Jacobson Samuel G, Beltran William A, Aguirre Gustavo D: Overlap of abnormal photoreceptor development and progressive degeneration in Leber congenital amaurosis caused by NPHP5 mutation. Human molecular genetics 25 (19): 4211-4226,2016.

View all publications

Academic Contact Info

Department of Neurology
3400 Spruce Street

Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: (215) 662-3390
Patient appointments: 800-789-7366 (PENN)

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