Dr. LeePenn Center for Cranial Base Surgery offers a full range of advanced surgical procedures available today to treat cranial base disorders. We provide new hope and improved quality of life to patients with tumors previously considered untreatable or patients who may have been misdiagnosed elsewhere. 

Penn Medicine neurosurgeons are known for their extensive training, experience and expertise in minimally invasive surgery, and their ability to determine the most effective course of treatment for each patient.

Cranial Base Surgical Treatment Options

Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Surgical Techniques

Endonasal SurgeryMany cranial base disorders, especially pituitary tumors, can be surgically treated or removed through the sinus cavity, an endonasal technique. This minimally invasive technique is performed jointly between neurosurgeons and ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons and requires access through the nose, or from behind the ear. Surgeons at Penn Center for Cranial Base Surgery use state-of-the-art navigation, optics and surgical techniques to remove cranial base tumors through small incisions. These advanced techniques — many pioneered here at Penn — reduce the need for brain manipulation or resecting normal structures. The result is improved outcomes and patient safety as well as dramatically reducing the cosmetic impact of surgery. 

Advanced Microscopic, Laser and Ultrasonic Techniques

Penn performs advanced microscopic, laser, and ultrasound tecniques on certain types of tumors that are buried deep within the base of the skull. The laser, for example, allows surgeons to remove these tumors in less time, decreasing risk of complications, less use of anesthesia and a reduced possibility of damage to surrounding healthy brain and nerve tissue.

Restorative and Reconstructive Facial and Skull Base Surgery

Penn Center for Cranial Base Surgery has a team of surgeons dedicated to restoring the functional and cosmetic elements of a patient’s health. Restorative techniques such as microvascular reconstruction, nerve and muscle grafting, facial reanimation and soft tissue restoration are implemented as an important part of a patient’s treatment and overall outcome. 

Open Skull Surgery

Surgeons perform open skull surgery when necessary. This procedure may require incisions in the facial area and in the skull. Surgeons may need to remove parts of bones so that the tumor can be reached and removed. Advanced imaging is often used for this type of surgery. 

Watchful Waiting 

Some cranial base disorders including tumors don’t require surgery and are monitored for some time to see if they grow.

Clinical Trials

Penn Medicine is a leader in research and conducts many clinical trials to discover new drugs, new surgical techniques, and devices. Clinical trials are also conducted to test cutting-edge and novel therapies. Not everyone with a disease or problem can take part in a research study. If your doctor thinks that you might qualify for a study, he or she may present it as a treatment option. Likewise, if you are interested in knowing if you qualify for a trial, please ask your healthcare provider for more information. 

For more information, visit Neurosurgery Research and Clinical Trials.


Radiosurgery uses beams of ionizing radiation to precisely target a tumor so that surrounding structures receive little radiation. It can serve as stand-alone therapy or in addition to a surgical resection. Many tumors, especially those that are difficult to access surgically, are treated with these techniques.

Below are the types of radiosurgery offered for cranial base tumors.

In This Section

Gamma Knife®

Gamma Knife® radiosurgery is a powerful, precise, blade-free surgical option for those suffering from brain tumors and other serious brain disorders.

Proton Therapy

Proton therapy is a highly targeted form of radiation therapy that delivers precise doses of radiation to a tumor while minimizing exposure to surrounding normal tissues.

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