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Types of Bone Sarcoma

Sarcoma is the name given to cancers that begin in the bone, muscle, fat, nerves or connective tissue. Bone sarcomas are rare cancers, accounting for less than one percent of all cancers diagnosed in the United States. Below are types of bone sarcomas.


Adamantinoma is a rare bone cancer that almost always occurs in the bones of the lower leg. Adamantinomas account for less than one percent of all bone sarcomas.


Chondrosarcoma is cancer comprised of cartilage cells. Cartilage is the hard, resilient material found on the surface of bones at the joints. Chondrosarcoma can occur in the arms, legs, or the trunk of the body. It is the most common type of primary bone sarcoma found in adults.

Possible signs of chondrosarcoma include pain and swelling near the tumor.

Rare sub-types of chondrosarcoma include:

  • Secondary chondrosarcoma to a preexisting cartilaginous lesion
  • Dedifferentiated
  • Mesenchymal
  • Clear cell


Chordoma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the bones of the base of the skull and spine, specifically the sacrum. Roughly 300 people in the United States are diagnosed with chordoma every year.

Ewing Sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a neuroendocrine cell in bone or soft tissue. It is primarily found in the bones of the legs, arms, chest, pelvis, spine, or shoulder. Ewing sarcomas usually occur in teenagers and young children, under the age of 25.

Malignant Vascular Tumors of Bone

Malignant vascular tumors of the bone are very rare and can occur in any location.

Types of malignant vascular tumors of the bone include:

  • Angiosarcoma
  • Hemangiopericytoma
  • Hemangioendothelioma


Osteosarcoma is comprised of cancerous bone-forming cells. Osteosarcoma is most common in teenagers. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. It often forms in the bones near the knee. Sometimes, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissues.

Symptoms of osteosarcoma include pain and swelling. If the tumor spreads to the lungs, other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, fever, weight loss, and weakness may occur.

Sub-types of osteosarcoma include:

  • Osteosarcoma secondary to radiation, or Paget's Disease
  • Parosteal osteosarcoma
  • Periosteal osteosarcoma
  • Telangiectatic

Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (UPS) or Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma (MFH)

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), or malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a type of sarcoma found in bone or soft tissue.

As the name implies, UPS does not bear any resemblance to normal tissue, and UPS is considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma of late adult life.