Since the 1980s, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) – in which positive pressure is pushed through the nasal airways to help users breathe while sleeping – has been by far the most widely used treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With more than 18 million people experiencing OSA, a number expected to rise, new results from a Penn case study of a new device implanted in the chest called hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) offers promise for patients with moderate to severe OSA who cannot tolerate CPAP.

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