The U.S. presidential campaign season has reignited debates on how best to deliver cost-effective, high quality care. A new perspective paper in the New England Journal of Medicine advocates for a comprehensive approach to recognize and manage “therapeutic illusion” to improve use of medical treatments. The therapeutic illusion—an unjustified belief in treatment—has been proven in previous studies in different environments. Consistently, physicians have reported overestimating the benefits of inappropriate tests and treatments.

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