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Geoffrey Aguirre, MD, PhD

Geoffrey Aguirre, MD, PhD Physician

Associate Professor of Neurology

Dr. Aguirre is employed by Penn Medicine.

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Clinical Specialties


  • Neurology

Programs & Centers:

Board Certification:

  • Neurology, 2005

Clinical Expertise:

  • Abnormal Reflexes
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Arm Weakness
  • Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell's Palsy
  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
  • Carotid Stenosis
  • Cerebellar Ataxia
  • Cerebellar Disease
  • Cerebral Aneurysm
  • Cerebrovascular Accident
  • Cervical Dystonia
  • Charcot Marie Tooth Disease (CMT)
  • CNS Vasculitis
  • Cognitive Impairment
  • Concussion
  • Cranial Nerve Injuries
  • Encephalopathies
  • Epilepsy
  • Facial Droop
  • Facial Nerve Pain (Neuralgia)
  • Facial Pain
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)
  • Headache
  • Leg Weakness
  • Lip Droop
  • Lobar Atrophy of Brain
  • Medication Overuse Headache
  • Memory Disorders
  • Movement Disorders
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Muscle Weakness
  • Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
  • Myelitis
  • Nerve Root Pain
  • Nervous System Disorders
  • Neuromuscular Disorders
  • Neuropathy
  • Nonruptured Cerebral Aneurysm
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Paraplegia
  • Paresthesia
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Peripheral Nerve Disorders
  • Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Periventricular Leukomalacia
  • Positional Vertigo
  • Primary Cerebellar Degeneration
  • Primary Progressive Aphasia
  • Pseudotumor Cerebri
  • Quadriplegia
  • Radiculopathy
  • Sensory Impairment
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia
  • Spinocerebellar Degeneration
  • Spinocerebellar Diseases
  • Stroke
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Syncope
  • Tetraplegia
  • Tinnitus
  • Torticollis
  • Transient Ischemic Attack
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  • Tremor
  • Trigeminal Nerve Disorders
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
  • Unsteady Gait
  • Vertigo
Show All Expertise

Practice Locations and Appointments

Insurance Accepted

  • Aetna US Healthcare
  • Cigna
  • Cigna HealthSpring
  • Clover Health Plan
  • CVS Health
  • Devon Health Services (Americare)
  • eLAP Services
  • Gateway Health Plan
  • Geisinger Health Plan
  • HealthAmerica / HealthAssurance, a Coventry Plan
  • HealthPartners
  • HealthPartners Medicare
  • HealthSmart
  • Highmark Blue Shield
  • Homestead Smart Health Plans
  • Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey
  • Humana / Choicecare
  • Independence Blue Cross (Keystone East)
  • Intergroup
  • Keystone First
  • Keystone First Medicare
  • Multiplan
  • NJ Medicaid
  • NJ Qualcare
  • Oxford Health Plan
  • PA Health and Wellness (Centene) Medicare
  • PA Medicaid
  • PA Medicare
  • Preferred Health Care/LGH
  • Provider Partners Health Plan
  • Rail Road Medicare / Palmetto GBA
  • Remedy Partners at Penn Medicine
  • Tricare
  • United Healthcare
  • UnitedHealthcare Community Plan
  • US Family Health Plan
  • Veterans Choice Program

Education and Training

Medical School: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Residency: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania


American Academy of Neurology, National Cognitive Neuroscience Society, International National Science Foundation, ad-hoc grant reviewer, National Optical Society of America, National Organization for Human Brain Mapping, International Sensory Perception and Cognition (SPC) NIH study section, National Vision Sciences Society, International

Hospital Affiliation

Dr. Aguirre is employed by Penn Medicine.

Hospital Privileges:

  • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.
  • Penn Presbyterian Medical Center: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.
  • Pennsylvania Hospital: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.


Description of Research Expertise:

I study human cortical organization for vision, and how this organization is altered by neurologic and ophthalmologic disease. Human visual cortex is composed of early, “retinotopically” organized visual areas, as well as more specialized, “categorical” areas that process specific visual features (such as facial appearance). My work has varied along two dimensions within this research space: scale and perturbation. I have examined the organization of visual cortex from its large-scale, anatomical arrangement to the precise and subtle form of population neural coding for object features. These studies at different scales of cortical organization have further been conducted both in healthy controls as well as in patients for whom visual function has been perturbed by retinal disease or cerebral dysfunction. I make use of a variety of scientific techniques, although the majority of my research uses BOLD fMRI, which is a non-invasive measure of neural activity in human participants.

Selected Publications:

McAdams Harrison, Igdalova Aleksandra, Spitschan Manuel, Brainard David H, Aguirre Geoffrey K: Pulses of Melanopsin-Directed Contrast Produce Highly Reproducible Pupil Responses That Are Insensitive to a Change in Background Radiance. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 59 (13): 5615-5626,2018.

Mattar Marcelo G, Olkkonen Maria, Epstein Russell A, Aguirre Geoffrey K: Adaptation decorrelates shape representations. Nature communications 9 (1): 3812,2018.

Mattar Marcelo G, Wymbs Nicholas F, Bock Andrew S, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Grafton Scott T, Bassett Danielle S: Predicting future learning from baseline network architecture. NeuroImage 172 : 107-117,2018.

Irwin David J, McMillan Corey T, Xie Sharon X, Rascovsky Katya, Van Deerlin Vivianna M, Coslett H Branch, Hamilton Roy, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Lee Edward B, Lee Virginia M Y, Trojanowski John Q, Grossman Murray: Asymmetry of post-mortem neuropathology in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia. Brain : a journal of neurology 141 (1): 288-301,2018.

Spitschan Manuel, Bock Andrew S, Ryan Jack, Frazzetta Giulia, Brainard David H, Aguirre Geoffrey K: The human visual cortex response to melanopsin-directed stimulation is accompanied by a distinct perceptual experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (46): 12291-12296,2017.

Olkkonen Maria, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Epstein Russell A: Expectation modulates repetition priming under high stimulus variability. Journal of vision 17 (6): 10,2017.

Aguirre Geoffrey K, Butt Omar H, Datta Ritobrato, Roman Alejandro J, Sumaroka Alexander, Schwartz Sharon B, Cideciyan Artur V, Jacobson Samuel G: Postretinal Structure and Function in Severe Congenital Photoreceptor Blindness Caused by Mutations in the GUCY2D Gene. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 58 (2): 959-973,2017.

Downs Louise M, Scott Erin M, Cideciyan Artur V, Iwabe Simone, Dufour Valerie, Gardiner Kristin L, Genini Sem, Marinho Luis Felipe, Sumaroka Alexander, Kosyk Mychajlo S, Swider Malgorzata, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Jacobson Samuel G, Beltran William A, Aguirre Gustavo D: Overlap of abnormal photoreceptor development and progressive degeneration in Leber congenital amaurosis caused by NPHP5 mutation. Human molecular genetics 25 (19): 4211-4226,2016.

Mattar Marcelo G, Kahn David A, Thompson-Schill Sharon L, Aguirre Geoffrey K: Varying Timescales of Stimulus Integration Unite Neural Adaptation and Prototype Formation. Current biology : CB 26 (13): 1669-1676,2016.

Spitschan Manuel, Aguirre Geoffrey K, Brainard David H, Sweeney Alison M: Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution. Scientific reports 6 : 26756,2016.

View all publications

Academic Contact Info

Department of Neurology
3400 Spruce Street

Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: (215) 662-3390
Patient appointments: 800-789-7366 (PENN)

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