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Eline T. Luning Prak, MD, PhD

Eline T. Luning Prak, MD, PhD Physician

Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Languages spoken:

  • Dutch

Dr. Luning Prak is employed by Penn Medicine.

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About Dr. Eline T. Luning Prak

Molecular Immunology- I have expertise in next-generation sequencing based assays of immune repertoires and computational analysis of the immune repertoire.  Iimmune repertoire profiling can be used clinically for the evaluation of immunodeficiency, for diagnosis of B or T cell malignancy or lymphoproliferative disorder and for minimal residual disease evaluation.  I co-chair a working group that is establishing data standards for NGS immune repertoire profiling studies (part of the international Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community). 

Flow Cytometry- I have expertise in clinical and translational immunophenotyping experiments.  I direct a core lab (Human Immunology Core) that develops and performs multicolor immunophenotyping panels for early-phase clinical trials.  I am especially familiar with human B cell lymphocyte maturation, but also provide input into the design of immunophenotyping panels for malignant B and T cell disorders.  I also serve as a consultant to HUP allergy immunology physicians who use clinical flow cytometry data as part of an immunodeficiency evaluation.

Autoimmune and infectious disease serology- I have expertise in autoimmune serology, autoantibody profiling and serologic assays for infectious diseases including lyme disease.  I help direct the Clinical Immunology laboratory at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, which performs a wide range of assays.

HLA typing and allosensitization evaluations-  I have expertise in HLA and anti-HLA immune responses, and provide input into clinical test design, evaluation and test reporting for the HLA lab at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

Clinical Specialties


  • Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Programs & Centers:

Board Certification:

  • Pathology - Clinical Pathology, 1999

Practice Locations and Appointments

Insurance Accepted

  • Aetna US Healthcare
  • Cigna
  • Cigna HealthSpring
  • Clover Health Plan
  • CVS Health
  • Devon Health Services (Americare)
  • eLAP Services
  • Gateway Health Plan
  • Geisinger Health Plan
  • HealthAmerica / HealthAssurance, a Coventry Plan
  • HealthPartners
  • HealthPartners Medicare
  • HealthSmart
  • Highmark Blue Shield
  • Homestead Smart Health Plans
  • Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey
  • Humana / Choicecare
  • Independence Blue Cross (Keystone East)
  • Intergroup
  • Keystone First
  • Keystone First Medicare
  • Multiplan
  • NJ Medicaid
  • NJ Qualcare
  • Oxford Health Plan
  • PA Health and Wellness (Centene) Medicare
  • PA Medicaid
  • PA Medicare
  • Preferred Health Care/LGH
  • Provider Partners Health Plan
  • Rail Road Medicare / Palmetto GBA
  • Remedy Partners at Penn Medicine
  • Tricare
  • United Healthcare
  • UnitedHealthcare Community Plan
  • US Family Health Plan
  • Veterans Choice Program

Education and Training

Medical School: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Residency: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Fellowship: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania


Academy of Clinical Laboratory Scientists and Physicians, National Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community, International American Association for Investigative Pathology (ASIP), National American Association of Immunologists, National American Society of Clinical Pathology, National College of American Pathologists, National Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, Local Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, National Lupus Research Institute, National Penn Institute for Immunology, Local The Antibody Society, International The Dunhill Medical Trust, International

Hospital Affiliation

Dr. Luning Prak is employed by Penn Medicine.

Hospital Privileges:

  • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.
  • Penn Presbyterian Medical Center: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.
  • Pennsylvania Hospital: Has privileges to treat patients in the hospital.


Description of Research Expertise:

Research Interests
Dr. Luning Prak studies the antibody repertoire in health and disease.

Key words: antibody, antibody repertoire, V(D)J recombination, receptor editing, immunoglobulin, autoimmunity, clone tracking, minimal residual disease

Description of Research
Antibodies are proteins produced by B lymphocytes that are important for immune defense, but also serve as ubiquitous biomarkers for immunity and disease. The proliferation of B cells derived from a single precursor cell (i.e., a clone) can reflect a robust immune response, an autoimmune disease process or herald B cell malignancy. Each B cell usually makes only one kind of antibody and each person has about 100 billion different B cells (this collection is called the antibody "repertoire"). My lab studies the B cell repertoire by sequencing the DNA rearrangements that create antibodies. These DNA rearrangements are diverse; hence, when sufficiently similar rearrangements are observed, they are likely to derive from B cells that are clonally related. By studying the clonal landscape of the human B cell repertoire using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we hope to better understand how B cells mature and evolve in different organs in health and disease. We are also harnessing this knowledge to create clinical lab tests that identify and track B cell clones.

Rotation Projects
1. An anatomic atlas of large B cell clones in the human body. By sequencing antibody heavy chain variable regions in different tissues of organ donors, we can trace how large B cell clones are distributed in the body. So far, we have found two major networks of clones, one in the blood/bone marrow/spleen/lung and another in the gastrointestinal tract. We also observed that the B cells in the GI tract, and especially the jejunum, have more somatic hypermutations. One of the most interesting aspects of this work was the finding that some individuals, but not others, had very large standing B cell clones. We are focusing on defining the antigens drive the formation of these clones by capturing their antibodies and characterizing their antigenic specificity.

2. Ontogeny of human B cell subsets. How human B cell subsets, particularly memory B cells (MBCs), develop and evolve remains poorly understood. We have been studying human B cell subset maturation in the blood and have published several papers describing how B cell subsets shift with time, with age, and during autoreconstitution following chemotherapy or immunosuppression. In this ongoing project, we have been tracking individual clones through different B cell subsets sorted from blood, bone marrow and other human tissues. These studies reveal a surprising degree of clonal sharing between subsets, suggesting that differentiation is not unidirectional or that certain subsets have cells with self-renewal and/or maintenance capacities, or that our definitions of the subsets are flawed.

3. Clone tracking and B cell subset analysis in autiommunity. Our longstanding hypothesis, based upon our work and the work of others, is that patients with certain forms of autoimmunity harbor pathogenic expanded B cell clones. We hope to define pathogenic B cell clones that expand during disease flares and potentially gain insights into their subset of origin and manner of tolerance breakdown, building upon our ongoing work in autoimmunity. In this ongoing project, we are tracking clonal lineages in blood and in some cases tissues from individuals with different autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes.

4. Clone tracking in malignancy. We are interested in developing and validating robust next generation sequencing (NGS) based methods to identify and track malignant and non-malignant B cell clones and lymphocyte subsets in patients with hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other malignant and pre-malignant conditions. In addition to developing minimal residual disease NGS assays, we are studying the non-malignant B and T cell repertoires in cancer patients. Features of the non-malignant immune repertoire, such as its diversity and degree of somatic hypermutation, may inform immune therapies and provide prognostic information.

Lab and core lab personnel:
Wenzhao Meng, PhD
Dora Chen
Aaron Rosenfeld
Michelle Xu
Patricia Tsao, MD, PhD
Ling Zhao, MD, PhD
Yang Zhu Du, MD, PhD
Ping Wei, MD
Zheng Cui, PhD
Zhenyu Huang, MD, PhD
Yinan Lu
Hongen Wang

Selected Publications:

Miron, M., Kumar, B.V., Meng, W., Granot, T., Carpenter, D.J., Senda, T., Chen, D., Rosenfeld, A., Zhang, B., Lerner, H., Friedman, A.L., Hershberg, U., Shen, Y., Rahman, A., Luning Prak, E.T. and D.L. Farber.: Human lymph nodes maintain quiescent memory T cells with high functional potential and clonal diversity throughout life J. Immunol. 201 (7): 2132-2140,2018.

Rosenfeld, A.M., Meng, W., Luning Prak, E.T. and U. Hershberg: ImmuneDB, a novel tool for the analysis, storage, and dissemination of immune repertoire sequencing data Frontiers in Immunology 9 : 2107,2018.

Rosenfeld, A.M., Chen, D.Y., Meng, W., Zhang, B., Granot, T., Farber, D.L., Hershberg, U. and E.T. Luning Prak: Computational evaluation of B-cell clone sizes in bulk populations Frontiers in Immunology 9 : 1472,2018.

Javaheri, A., Wang, A.R., Luning Prak, E.T., Lal, P., Goldberg, L.R. and M. Kamoun: Fatal Accelerated Rejection with a Prominent Natural Killer Cell Infiltrate in a Heart Transplant Patient with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Transplant Immunology 47 : 49-54,2018.

Hanley, P., Sutter, J.A., Goodman, N.G., Du, Y., Sekiguchi, D.R., Meng, W., Rickels, M.R., Naji, A. and E.T. Luning Prak.: Circulating B cells in type 1 diabetics exhibit fewer maturation-associated phenotypes Clinical Immunology 183 : 336-343,2017.

Meng, W., Zhang, B., Schwartz, GW, Rosenfeld, AM, Ren, D., Thome, J JC, Carpenter, DJ, Matsuoka, N., Lerner, H., Friedman, A.L., Granot, T., Farber, D.L., Shlomchik, M.J., Hershberg, U. and E.T. Luning Prak.: An atlas of B cell clonal distribution in the human body Nature Biotechnology 35 (9): 879-884,2017.

Rosenfeld, A., Meng, W., Luning Prak, E.T. and U. Hershberg: ImmuneDB: A system for the analysis and exploration of high-throughput adaptive immune receptor sequencing data Bioinformatics 33 (2): 292-293,2017.

Beer, L.A., Kossenkov, A.V., Liu, Q., Luning Prak, E.T., Domchek, S., Speicher, D.W. and B. Ky: Baseline Immunoglobulin E levels as a marker of doxorubicin- and trastuzumab-associated cardiac dysfunction Circ Res 119 (10): 1135-1144,2016.

Derfalvi, B., Maurer, K., McDonald, D.M., Zackai, E., Meng, W., Luning Prak, E.T. and K.E. Sullivan.: B cell development in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Clinical Immunology 163 : 1-9,2016.

Zhang, B., Meng, W., Luning Prak, E.T. and U. Hershberg: Discrimination of germline V genes at different sequencing lengths and mutational burdens: a new tool for identifying and evaluating the reliability of V gene assignment J. Immunol. Methods 427 : 105-116,2015.

View all publications

Academic Contact Info

405B Stellar-Chance Laboratories
422 Curie Blvd.

Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: (215) 746-5768
Patient appointments: 800-789-7366 (PENN)

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