SPAMM (SPAtial Modulation of Magnetization)
Simulated 3D Tag Data Set
SPAMM tagged short axis of an anterior infarct showing myocardial thinning and LV dilitation
Spatial Modulation of Magnetization (SPAMM) Analysis
Flow chart of 3D strain computation from deformed synthetic image volume.
Applications of SPAMM Imaging - Infarct K9 Cardiomyoplasty analyzed with 2D optical flow
Displacement Map of Cardiomyoplasty
Left: Nonstimulated demonstrates uniform displacement over the entire left ventricle.
Right: Muscle stimulation resulted in an increase in displacement in the anterior region of the left ventricle.
Maximum Principal Strain Lambda 1
Left: Uniform strain pattern in the nonstimulated myoplasty.
Right: Stimulation increased the principle strain in the anterior region indicating an improvement in function.
3D Surface Modeling
3 Month Post-MI, Control (left) and Treated (right).
Border Zone Analysis Performed Using 2D Optical Flow
Left: Created anterior infarct.
Right: Placed titanium markers at BZ.
Short axis image of an ovine infarct model eight weeks post infarct with marker indicating border zone region. The border zone was considered to be the adjacent myocardium within a 20 degree arc of the marker.
Systolic Radial Strain Dynamics
In the non-infarct border zone, strain increased linearly from end-diastole to end-systole. Strain increased during isovolumic contraction in the control group but decreased thereafter. The CSD strain increased then remained constant and dramatically increased during late ejection.