- Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the airways. A person with
asthma may not feel symptoms all the time.
- The most common symptoms are difficulty breathing, wheezing, chest tightness,
and coughing. Even if you have only one of these signs -- like chronic
coughing -- it may be due to asthma. Other symptoms, like sweating or rapid
heart rate, may be present.
- During an asthma attack, the lining of the airways becomes inflamed, the
airways constrict tighter and tighter, and excess mucus builds up inside
the airway passages. It becomes very hard for air to pass through the airways.
- Asthma can be triggered by most of the same things that trigger allergies
(dust mites, mold, animal dander, cockroaches, etc). A key step in controlling
asthma is to identify which of these triggers make your asthma worse, and
then work to eliminate or avoid them. It also can be triggered by cold air,
exercise, respiratory viruses, and other factors.
- People with asthma have very sensitive airways that are constantly on the
verge of over-reacting to asthma triggers. Asthma is "reversible" -- in other
words, it can be treated with medication to keep the symptoms under control.
- There are four levels of asthma severity. Asthma is classified based on
how often symptoms occur during the day, how often symptoms occur at night,
and spirometry results. The severity of your asthma impacts the treatment
- Almost anyone with asthma should be able to prevent most asthma attacks,
sleep at night without being wakened by asthma, prevent most trips to the
hospital, prevent missed work or school because of asthma symptoms, exercise
normally like anyone else, and find an asthma treatment plan that has minimal
- Consider seeing an asthma specialist if these goals are not being met.
For those with severe persistent asthma, it may take up to 6 months to get
your asthma under control.
- All people with asthma should continue to visit their doctor at least twice
a year to make sure that they are still achieving optimal control.
- There are two major types of asthma medication. The first type asthma medicine
is called a long-term control drug, which may be used on a daily basis
to PREVENT asthma attacks. Inhaled steroids, which prevent inflammation,
are generally a doctor's first choice for daily control. For moderate-to-severe
asthma, steroids are even more effective when combined with long-acting beta
- The second type of asthma medication is called a quick-relief drug. These
medicines are used DURING an asthma attack to bring fast relief. Short acting
beta-agonists are the most effective and most widely used drugs for treating
asthma attacks. They also can be used just before exercising to help prevent
exercise-induced symptoms. They work by relaxing the muscles that tighten
around the bronchial tubes during an attack. Albuterol is the most commonly
used short-acting beta-agonist.
- There are several ways to get an asthma drug into your lungs. The most
common methods are metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers,
and nebulizers. Spacers work with your MDI to deliver medication
more easily and effectively, and can reduce side effects. The appropriate
method depends on personal preference, age, ability to use MDIs, and the
drugs you have been prescribed.
- You should ask for a written action plan that explains how to take
your medicines and control your asthma.
- Checking your peak flow is one of the best ways to empower yourself
and gain control over your asthma. It can help you make sure your asthma
is not getting worse and can bring you peace of mind. Peak flow is measured
at home with a small, inexpensive plastic meter.
- Asthma can be managed by a pediatrician, family doctor, or primary care
provider. Allergists, pulmonolgists, and some other physician respiratory
specialists have specific training in the care of asthma and in some cases
may be more familiar with current clinical guidelines, such as the National
Institutes of Health asthma guidelines. Some patients may wish to go to an
allergist or other specialist for a second opinion or to get the initial
treatment plan established.
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel Report: guidelines
for the diagnosis and management of asthma update on selected topics -- 2002. J
Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Nov;110(Suppl 5):S141-219.
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel Report 2:
guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda (MD):
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National
Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; 1997 Jul.
NIH Publications 97-4051.
Williams SG, Schmidt DK, Redd SC, Storms W. Key clinical activities for quality
asthma care: recommendations of the National Asthma Education and Prevention
Program. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003 Mar 28;52(RR-6):1-8.
Review Date: 5/16/2007
Reviewed By: Alan Greene, M.D., F.A.A.P., Department of Pediatrics, Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine; Chief Medical Officer, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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