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Allergen: A substance that triggers an allergic reaction.

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Allergic Rhinitis: An allergy affecting the mucus membrane of the nose. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is often called "hay fever."

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Allergist: A doctor that diagnoses, treats, and manages allergy-related conditions.

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Ana-Kit: A device used to inject epinephrine during an anaphylaxis attack.

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Anaphylaxis: A life-threatening allergic reaction that involves the entire body. Anaphylaxis may result in shock or death, and thus requires immediate medical attention

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Animal dander: The small scales or pieces of skin, often containing proteins secreted by oil glands, which are shed by an animal. These proteins are the major causes of allergies to pets.

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Antibiotics: A class of medications used to treat bacterial infections. Certain antibiotics, such as penicillin, may cause an allergic reaction in some people.

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Antibody: A protein in the immune system that recognizes and attacks foreign substances in the body.

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Anticonvulsant: A medication used to prevent or treat seizures. Certain anticonvulsants may cause an allergic reaction in some people.

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Antihistamines: A class of medications used to block the action of histamines in the body and prevent the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

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Asthma: An inflammatory disorder of the airways, causing periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

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Atopic dermatitis: A chronic skin rash, also known as "eczema," that often appears in the first few years of life.

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Basophil: An immune system cell that attaches to antibodies and circulates through out the blood.

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Beta-blockers: A class of blood pressure medications that ease the heart's pumping action and widen the blood vessels. Beta-blockers counteract the effects of epinephrine used for emergency treatment of anaphylactic shock and should not be used during immunotherapy.

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Bronchial tubes: The lower sections of the airway that lead into the lungs.

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Challenge test: A test used to confirm an allergy to specific substance. A doctor will administer small but increasing amounts of a suspected allergen until an allergic response is noticed. Due to the risk of anaphylaxis, this should only be performed under a controlled setting.

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Conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the conjunctiva, or the mucous membrane surrounding the eye. Also known as pinkeye.

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Contact dermatitis: An allergic reaction resulting from skin contact to an allergen.

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Corticosteroid: An anti-inflammatory medication used to treat the itching and swelling associated with some allergic reactions.

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Cromolym sodium: An anti-inflammatory nasal spray used to treat and sometimes prevent allergic rhinitis.

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Decongestants: A class of medications used for nasal congestion. Decongestants are available in oral doses, nasal sprays, or eye drops (for conjunctivitis).

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Dust mites: A microscopic organism that lives in dust.

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Eczema: See Atopic dermatitis.

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Eosinophil: A specific type of immune cell that can cause tissue damage in the late phase of an allergic reaction.

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Epinepherine: A medication used for immediate treatment of anaphylaxis by raising blood pressure and heart rate back to normal levels. Epinepherine is also known as adrenaline.

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EpiPen: A device used to inject epinephrine during an anaphylaxis attack.

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Heparin: A chemical released by basophils and mast cells that causes nearby tissues to become swollen and inflamed.

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Histamine: A chemical released by basophils and mast cells that causes nearby tissues to become swollen and inflamed.

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Hives: See urticaria.

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Hypertension: High blood pressure. When blood pushes against artery walls harder than normal.

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Immunoglobulin E: A type of antibody responsible for most allergic reactions.

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Immunotherapy: A series of shots that help build up the immune system's tolerance to an allergen.

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Insulin: A hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. Diabetics who take insulin derived from animals may have allergic reactions.

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Intradermal test: A test where an allergen is injected just underneath the skin. Intradermal tests are generally used when results from a skin prick test are unclear.

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Late Phase: The period 4 - 24 hours after exposure to an allergen where tissue damage may occur.

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Leukotrienes: Inflammatory substances that are released by mast cells during an allergic response or asthma attack.

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Lymphocyte: A specific type of immune cell that can cause tissue damage in the late phase of an allergic reaction.

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Mast cell: An immune system cell which attaches to antibodies and is located in the tissue that lines the nose, bronchial tubes, gastrointestinal tract, and the skin

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Neocromil sodium: An inhaled medication used to treat inflammation involved with asthma.

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Neutrophil: A specific type of immune cell that can cause tissue damage in the late phase of an allergic reaction.

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Otitis media: A middle ear infection. Otitis media with effusion occurs when fluid builds up within the ear.

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Radioallergosorbant Test (RAST): A blood test that measures the amount of IgE antibody produced when the sample is mixed with a specific allergen.

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Rhinitis: An inflammation of the nasal passageways, particularly with discharge.

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Sinusitis: An inflammation or infection of one or more sinuses. The sinuses are hollow air spaces located around the nose and eyes.

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Skin prick test: A test where a needle is used to scratch the skin with a small amount of allergen. A response can usually be seen within 15 - 20 minutes.

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Urticaria: Raised areas of the skin that are often red, warm, and itchy. Urticaria is also known as hives.

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Urushiol: An oil found on poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

QUESTION:

If a child has cold symptoms that go on and on, is it really allergies? Or is it just one long cold? Or several colds, back-to-back? This is especially difficult in the spring when all the flowers and trees are in bloom. Are the treatments the same? Either way the symptoms are miserable!!!

Shirley, Mill Valley, California

DR. ALAN GREENE:

Walking into a drugstore, you are confronted with an overwhelming display of brightly packaged allergy products, each promising greater allergy relief than its neighbors. Many of these products can actually harm your child and make the effects of allergies even worse. The right choices, however, used in the right ways, can dramatically improve your child's springtime.

For years, the centerpieces of over-the-counter allergy therapy have been decongestants and antihistamines. Decongestants are caffeine-like compounds that work by constricting blood vessels throughout the body, including in the nose. By limiting blood flow to the nose, nasal congestion and swelling are somewhat decreased, providing a measure of relief.

Decongestants temporarily raise the blood pressure and make extra work for the heart. Since most kids have strong, healthy hearts this is usually not a problem -- but it is for some. More commonly, the tendency for kids on decongestants to experience irritability or sleeplessness is a more practical concern. Allergy preparations advertised as "non-drowsy" are typically decongestant preparations. Multi-symptom allergy or cold medicines usually contain a decongestant called pseudoephedrine. Topical decongestants (nose drops or nasal sprays) provide far greater relief with fewer side effects, but these powerful medicines should not be used for more than three days at a time (or they begin to work backwards and can also be habit-forming). These may be a great option for a night or two while another strategy is beginning to work, but are a poor choice for beating the effects of the allergy season.

Antihistamines and children

Antihistamines reduce allergy symptoms by blocking the action of the histamine released by mast cells in response to allergic triggers such as pollen. These can be very effective, but many of the over-the-counter antihistamines cause some change in kids' levels of alertness. Most of the time, they produce drowsiness in children (which can be quite welcome -- especially at night), but around 5% of kids act hyper instead.

Of far greater concern is the effect of these antihistamines on thinking and learning. We know that kids who are experiencing allergy symptoms don't think or learn or remember as well as kids who are feeling well (Annals of Allergy, Aug 1993). Careful studies have now been performed to determine whether this reduction in learning ability could be reversed by using over-the-counter antihistamines to relieve the allergy symptoms. The surprising results were that even though kids felt better on the antihistamines, their learning abilities were even worse than with no treatment (Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, March 1996). Children are better off congested than drugged. (Better yet is having the symptoms relieved in less problematic ways!) Thankfully, antihistamines that don't cause drowsiness or learning problems have been available over-the-counter since 2002.

Drowsy-making over-the-counter antihistamines are a reasonable choice for nighttime use, or for an occasional day or two when a child is home from school. I do not recommend them, however, as a long-term solution. Learning --even during play -- is too important a part of childhood to blunt with drugs.

Sedating antihistamines are found in most allergy preparations that are not specifically advertised as non-drowsy. Diphenhydramine is the most powerful, but it also makes kids the sleepiest (or most wired). Chlorpheniramine and brompheniramine both are a little less potent but have fewer side effects. Loratadine does not tend to cause these side effects at all.

Nasalcrom

Nasalcrom is an exciting, over-the-counter allergy medicine that is can be more effective and far safer than either decongestants or antihistamines. Nasalcrom is a nasal spray that creates a protective barrier around the allergy cells in the nose so that pollen, mold, dust, and animal dander can't stick to them. It stops the allergic response before it starts--without causing any drowsiness, irritability, or decreased learning. It doesn't reverse allergy symptoms that are already present, but prevents new allergen exposures from causing symptoms. Unlike decongestant nasal sprays, this gentle medicine can be used for weeks or months at a time with no fear of rebound effects or addiction.

Many people think that Nasalcrom doesn't work well, since because when they give Nasalcrom a try, they experience no improvement in their allergy symptoms. Since Nasalcrom is a preventive medicine, though, it is only after using it 3 to 4 times a day for a week or so that the full benefits begin to appear. Nasalcrom is safer than decongestants and antihistamines and was a prescription medication for 14 years before it became over-the-counter.

Reduce allergy triggers

Preventing exposure to airborne allergies is another powerful way to treat allergies at home. To this end, a HEPA filter can be an excellent investment. These High Efficiency Particulate Arresting filters, available at discount drug stores for about $60 - $100, can remove 99.97+% of the pollen, dust, and animal dander from the air. I highly recommend placing one in the room where a child with hayfever sleeps.

When kids are playing outside during hayfever season, pollen from grasses, weeds, and trees clings to their clothes and hair. Taking off the outside clothes as they enter the house, and perhaps rinsing the hair, can greatly reduce the pollen they are exposed to that night as they sleep. Every little bit of exposure reduction helps. If a child is allergic to pollen, dust, and cats, minimizing exposure to pollen and dust will make the cat allergies less severe by cooling down the allergic response.

The Old Farmer's Almanac advises tying a bag of onions around the neck or around the bedpost as a good home remedy for allergies. My guess is that this works by stimulating tear production, which naturally washes pollen particles out of the eyes and nose. A less smelly way to accomplish the same thing is the liberal use of saline nose drops or saline eye drops (artificial tears). Saline drops are not the same as the eye drops that are advertised to "get the red out." While "get the red out" drops do help to reduce the red appearance of irritated eyes, they are not a good choice for preventing or treating allergies.

The Almanac also suggests turning a piece of orange rind inside out and inserting it in the nose. We now know that some of the ingredients in citrus fruits (including vitamin C) block the histamine response in a safe and natural way. The most potent of these appears to be a vitamin-like compound called quercitin that is found in citrus fruits and buckwheat. Increasing these foods in the diet makes sense. Quercitin/vitamin C supplements are available in health food stores. We know that these reduce hayfever symptoms in rats, but their effect in human children have not been established. They do appear to be safe and gentle, however, and many people report success with them.

Stinging nettle is the other natural remedy that shows a lot of promise. Also available in health food stores, this herbal supplement is now known to reduce the histamine response in test tube experiments. But again, although I have heard many testimonials, the scientific evidence in support of its effectiveness in humans is sparse.

The last remedy suggested by the Old Farmer's Almanac is swallowing a spider. Yuck-- the cure is worse than the disease! This can also be the case with oral decongestants, topical decongestants, and over-the-counter antihistamines -- unless used carefully and with the right timing.

Even severe allergy symptoms, however, can often be kept at bay by the proper use of Nasalcrom, HEPA filters and the other remedies we have discussed. Expect an allergy-free springtime. If you are still having problems, make sure to check with your doctor about allergy testing or prescription medicines.

Alan Greene, M.D. earned a Bachelor's degree from Princeton University and graduated from medical school at University of California at San Francisco. Upon completion of his pediatric residency program at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Northern California in 1993, he served as Chief Resident. During his Chief year, Dr. Greene passed the pediatric boards in the top 5 percent of the nation.

Dr. Greene entered primary care pediatrics in January 1993. He is on the Clinical Faculty at Stanford University School of Medicine where he sees patients and teaches Residents. He serves as the Chief Medical Officer of A.D.A.M., Inc., a leading provider of consumer health information, and helps direct A.D.AM.'s editorial process. As A.D.A.M.'s CMO, he served as a founding member of Hi-Ethics (Health Internet Ethics) and helped URAC develop its standards for eHealth accreditation. He is also the Founder & CEO of DrGreene.com. Dr. Greene was also named Intel's Internet Health Hero for children's health. He is an author, medical expert, and a media personality.

Dr. Greene is the author of Raising Baby Green (Wiley Books, 2007), From First Kicks to First Steps (McGraw-Hill, 2004), and The Parent's Complete Guide to Ear Infections (Avon Books, 1997). He is also a co-author of the A.D.A.M. Illustrated Family Health Guide (A.D.A.M., Inc., 2004). Dr. Greene has appeared in numerous publications including the Wall Street Journal, Parenting, Parent, Child, American Baby, Baby Talk, Working Mother, Better Home's & Gardens, and Reader's Digest. He also appears frequently on television and radio shows as a medical expert.

 

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Review Date: 4/4/2007

Reviewed By: Alan Greene, M.D., F.A.A.P., Department of Pediatrics, Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine; Chief Medical Officer, A.D.A.M., Inc.


The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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