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Atrial septal defect (ASD)


Symptoms:

A person with no other heart defect, or a small defect (less than 5 millimeters) may not have symptoms, or the symptoms may not occur until middle age or later.

Symptoms that do occur may begin at any time after birth through childhood, and can include:

Signs and tests:

The doctor will check how large and severe an ASD is based on the symptoms, physical exam, and the results of heart tests.

The doctor may hear abnormal heart sounds when listening to the chest with a stethoscope. A murmur may be heard only in certain body positions, and sometimes a murmur may not be heard at all. A murmur means that blood is flowing in a turbulent (not smooth) way.

The physical exam may also reveal signs of heart failure in some adults.

An echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. It is often the first test done.

Other tests that may be done include:

Treatment:

ASD may not need treatment if there are few or no symptoms, or if the defect is small. Surgery to close the defect is recommended if the defect causes a large amount of shunting, the heart is swollen, or symptoms occur.

A procedure has been developed to close the defect without surgery.

  • The procedure involves placing an ASD closure device into the heart through tubes called catheters.
  • The health care provider makes a tiny surgical cut in the groin, then inserts the catheters into a blood vessel and up into the heart.
  • The closure device is then placed across the ASD and the defect is closed.

Not all patients with atrial septal defects can have this procedure.

Right after the surgery for ASD, patients should get antibiotics before dental procedures to reduce their risk of developing an infection in the heart. Antibiotics are not needed later on.

Expectations (prognosis):

In infants, small ASDs (less than 5 mm) will often close on their own or cause no problems. Larger ASDs (8 to 10 mm) most often do not close and may need a procedure.

Important factors include the size of the defect, the amount of extra blood flowing through the opening, and whether the person has any symptoms.

Some patients with ASO may have other congenital heart conditions, such as a leaky valve or a hole in another area of the heart.

Complications:

People with a larger or more complicated ASD are at an increased risk for developing a number of problems, including:

  • Arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation
  • Heart failure
  • Heart infections (endocarditis)
  • High blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs (pulmonary hypertension )
  • Stroke
Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of an atrial septal defect.

Prevention:

There is no known way to prevent the defect, but some of the complications can be prevented with early detection.

References:

Marelli AJ. Congenital heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 69.

Webb GD, Smallhorn JF, Therrien J, Redington AN. Congenital heart disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2011:chap 65.

Hanslik A, Pospisil U, Salzer-Muhar U, Greber-Platzer S, Male C. Predictors of spontaneous closure of isolated secundum atrial septal defect in children: a longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 2006;118(4):1560-1565.


Review Date: 6/4/2012
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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