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Serum phenylalanine screening


Definition:

Serum phenylalanine screening is a blood test to look for signs of the disease phenylketonuria (PKU). The test detects abnormally high levels of an amino acid called phenylalanine.

Alternative Names:

Phenylalanine - blood test

How the Test is Performed:

The test is usually included in a panel of routine screening tests, which are done before the newborn leaves the hospital. If the child is not born in the hospital, the test should be done in the first 48 to 72 hours of life.

An area of the infant's skin, usually the heel, is cleaned with a germ killer (antiseptic) and punctured with a sharp needle or a lancet. Three drops of blood are placed in three separate test circles on a piece of paper. Cotton or a bandage may be applied to the puncture site if there is any continued bleeding.

The test paper is taken to the laboratory where it is mixed with a type of bacteria that needs phenylalanine to grow and another substance that blocks phenylalanine from reacting with anything else.

See also: Newborn screening tests

How to Prepare for the Test:

For help preparing your baby for the test, see infant test or procedure preparation (birth to 1 year).

How the Test will Feel:

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some infants feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing. Infants are given a small amount of sugar water, which has been shown in studies to reduce the painful sensation associated with the skin puncture.

Why the Test is Performed:

This test is done to screen infants for phenylketonuria (PKU), a relatively rare condition that occurs when the body lacks a substance needed to breakdown the amino acid phenylalanine.

If PKU is not detected early, increasing phenylalanine levels will cause intellectual disability. When discovered early, changes in the diet can help prevent the severe side effects of PKU.

Normal Results:

A normal test results means that phenylalanine levels are normal and the child is not affected by PKU.

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

What Abnormal Results Mean:

PKU is a possibility and further testing will be performed if the phenylalanine levels in the infant's blood are too high.

Risks:

The risks of having blood drawn are slight, but include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
  • Multiple punctures to locate veins

Review Date: 5/10/2013
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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