An endoscope is passed through a natural body opening or small cut. There are many types of endoscopes. Each one is named according to the organs or areas they are used to examine.
Endoscopy is often used to examine and treat parts of the digestive tract, such as:
Anoscopy views the inside of the anus, the very lowest part of the colon.
Colonoscopy views the inside of the colon (large intestine) and rectum.
Enteroscopy views the small intestine (small bowel).
- ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) views the biliary tract, small tubes that drain the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas.
Sigmoidoscopy views the inside the sigmoid colon and rectum.
Upper endoscopy (or EGD) views the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine.
Bronchoscopy is used to look in the airways and lungs.
Cystoscopy is used to view the inside of the bladder. The scope is passed through the opening of the urethra.
Laparoscopy is used to look directly at the ovaries, appendix, or other abdominal organs.
- It is inserted through small surgical cuts in the pelvic or belly area.
- Tumors or organs in the abdomen or pelvis can be removed.
Arthroscopy is used to look directly in the joints.
- It is inserted through small surgical cuts around the joint.
- Problems with bones, tendons, ligaments can be treated.