Common speech and language disorders include:
Aphasia is loss of the ability to understand or express spoken or written language. It commonly occurs following strokes or traumatic brain injuries, or in people with brain tumors or degenerative diseases that affect the language areas of the brain. This term does not apply to children who have never developed communication skills. There are many different types of aphasia.
In some cases of aphasia, the problem eventually corrects itself, but in others the condition is irreversible.
In dysarthria, the person has ongoing difficulty expressing certain sounds or words. They have poorly pronounced speech (such as slurring) and the rhythm or speed of speech is changed. Usually, a nerve or brain disorder has made it difficult to control the larynx and vocal cords, which make speech.
Dysarthria, which is a difficulty pronouncing words, is sometimes confused with aphasia, which is a difficulty producing language. They have different causes.
People with dysarthria may also have problems swallowing.
Anything that changes the shape of the vocal cords or the way they work will cause a voice disturbance. Lump-like growths such as nodules, polyps, cysts, papillomas, granulomas, and cancers can be to blame. These changes cause the voice to sound different from the way it normally sounds.
DYSPHONIA is another type of speech impairment. For information, see the article on spasmodic dysphonia.