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Disorder of written expression


Definition:

Disorder of written expression is a childhood condition that involves poor writing skills.

Alternative Names:

Written expression disorder; Dysgraphia; Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression

Causes:

Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression is as common as other learning disorders, which is about 5 to 15%.

This disorder appears by itself or along with other learning disabilities, such as:

Symptoms:

Symptoms may include:

  • Errors in grammar and punctuation
  • Poor handwriting
  • Poor spelling
  • Poorly organized writing
Exams and Tests:

Other causes of learning disabilities must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be confirmed.

Treatment:

Remedial education is the best approach to this type of disorder.

Outlook (Prognosis):

The degree of recovery depends on the severity of the disorder. Marked improvement is often seen after treatment.

Possible Complications:

Complications that may occur include:

  • Learning problems
  • Low self-esteem
  • Problems with socializing
When to Contact a Medical Professional:

Parents who are concerned about their child's writing ability should have their child tested by educational professionals.

Prevention:

Learning disorders often run in families. Affected or potentially affected families should make every effort to recognize problems early. Intervention can begin as early as preschool or kindergarten.

References:

Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Barbaresi WJ, eds. The Forgotten Learning Disability: Epidemiology of Written-Language Disorder in a Population-Based Birth Cohort (1976-1982). Pediatrics. May 2009; 123:5 1306-1313.

Kelly DP, Natale MJ. Neurodevelopmental function and dysfunction in the school-aged child. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 29.


Review Date: 11/12/2014
Reviewed By: Jennifer K. Mannheim, ARNP, Medical Staff, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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