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Knock knees


Knock knees is a condition in which the knees touch, but the ankles do not touch. The legs turn inward.

Alternative Names:

Genu valgum


Infants start out with bowlegs because of their folded position while in their mother's womb. The legs begin to straighten once the child starts to walk (at about 12 to 18 months). By age 3, the child becomes knock-kneed. When the child stands, the knees touch but the ankles are apart.

By puberty, the legs straighten out and most children can stand with the knees and ankles touching (without forcing the position).

Knock knees can also develop as a result of a medical problem or disease, such as:

  • Injury of the shinbone (only one leg will be knock-kneed)
  • Osteomyelitis (bone infection)
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Rickets (a disease caused by a lack of vitamin D)
Exams and Tests:

A health care provider will examine your child. Tests will be done if there are signs that knock knees are not a part of normal development.


Knock knees are not treated in most cases.

If the problem continues after age 7, the child may use a night brace. This brace is attached to a shoe.

Surgery may be considered for knock knees that are severe and continue beyond late childhood.

Outlook (Prognosis):

Children normally outgrow knock knees without treatment, unless it is caused by a disease.

If surgery is needed, the results are most often good.

Possible Complications:

Complications may include:

  • Difficulty walking (very rare)
  • Self-esteem changes related to cosmetic appearance of knock knees
  • If left untreated, knock knees can lead to early arthritis of the knee
When to Contact a Medical Professional:

Call your health care provider if you think your child has knock knees.


There is no known prevention for normal knock knees.


Wells L, Sehgal K. Normal Limb Development. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 667.1.

Review Date: 11/20/2014
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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