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Food allergy


Definition:

A food allergy is an exaggerated immune response triggered by eggs, peanuts, milk, or some other specific food.

What are common symptoms of food allergies?The correct answer is all of the above. Eating something you're allergic to can trigger symptoms ranging from a runny nose to a dangerous full-body reaction. Talk to your doctor if you have any of these symptoms after eating a food, even if it's a small reaction.Food allergy and food intolerance are the same.The correct answer is false. A food allergy occurs when your immune system overreacts to a food and releases the chemical histamine. This causes allergic symptoms. Food intolerance is more common and doesn't involve your immune system. Sometimes it occurs because you can't digest part of a food, such as lactose, a type of sugar in milk. Which is a common food allergy?The correct answer is all of the above. Any food can cause an allergic reaction, but these are the most common. Other common foods include shellfish, soy, and tree nuts.If you eat something you're allergic to, your body will react within:The correct answer is two hours. Rarely, the symptoms may begin several hours after eating the food. Mild symptoms, such as a hive on your chin after eating something, will disappear soon and do not require treatment. However, you should tell your doctor about it. For some people, food allergies can be life-threatening.The correct answer is true. Some people have a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis. This causes a whole-body reaction. Symptoms can start within minutes and may include breathing and swallowing problems, slurred speech, or passing out. If you have any of these symptoms, call 9-1-1 right away.The only proven treatment for a food allergy is to avoid the food.The correct answer is true. If you're allergic to a food, the best way to prevent a reaction is to cut the food from your diet. Other treatments, such as allergy shots and probiotics, don't work to treat food allergies.Many children outgrow their allergy to:The correct answer is eggs. Many children will outgrow their allergy to eggs, milk, wheat, and soy by the time they are 5 years old if they avoid that food when they are young. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. To find out if you're still allergic to a food, you should eat a small amount.The correct answer is false. Do not eat a food that caused a reaction in the past without checking with your doctor first. A mild reaction in the past can become a more severe reaction the second or third time you try a food. Your doctor may want to be present when you try the food.People with food allergies should always carry epinephrine.The correct answer is true. Epinephrine is a medicine you can carry with you. It can stop a severe allergic reaction and save your life. It comes in a small syringe that is ready for you to give yourself a shot. If you've had an allergic reaction to food -- even a mild reaction -- talk to your doctor about this medicine.If you begin wheezing after eating a food, you should:The correct answer is to inject epinephrine and then call 9-1-1. Make sure you know how to use it. Also show loved ones how to use it in case you can't inject yourself.Fresh fruits are a common cause of mouth allergies.The correct answer is true. If you have an allergy to fruit, melons, apples, pineapple, and other fruits can cause your lips, tongue and throat to itch – especially if you eat them raw. The more fruit you eat, the more severe the reaction. A more severe reaction is rare.Which of the following may prevent food allergies in children?The correct answer is breastfeeding. Waiting to add allergy-causing foods until your baby is a little older also may help. The timing for this varies from food to food and from baby to baby. Ask your child’s health care provider when is best to start certain foods that commonly cause allergic reactions.
Alternative Names:

Allergy to food

Signs and tests:

In severe reactions, you may have low blood pressure and blocked airways.

Blood or skin tests are sometimes used to confirm that you have an allergy. A double-blind food challenge is one way to diagnose true food allergies. During this test, you and your health care provider will not know what you are eating.  

With elimination diets, you avoid the suspected food until your symptoms disappear. Then you start eating the foods again to see if you develop an allergic reaction.

In provocation (challenge) testing, you eat a small amount of the suspected food under medical supervision. This type of test may cause severe allergic reactions. Challenge testing should only be done by a health care provider.

Never try to cause a reaction or reintroduce a food on your own. These tests should only be done under the guidance of a health care provider -- especially if your first reaction was severe.

Treatment:

The only proven treatment for a food allergy is to avoid the food. Other treatments, including allergy shots and probiotics, have not been proven to help with food allergies.

If your child has a problem with cow’s milk formula, your health care provider may suggest trying a soy-based formula or something called an elemental formula, if it is available.

If you suspect that you or your child has a food allergy, see an allergy specialist.

If you have symptoms on only one area of the body (for example, a hive on the chin after eating the food), you may not need any treatment. The symptoms will likely go away in a brief time. Antihistamines may relieve the discomfort. Soothing skin creams can also provide some relief.

Talk to your health care provider if you think you have had an allergic reaction to food, even if it is only a local reaction.

Anyone who has been diagnosed with a food allergy should carry (and know how to use) injectable epinephrine at all times. If you develop any type of serious or whole-body reaction (even hives) after eating the food:

  • Inject the epinephrine.
  • Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency facility right away, preferably by ambulance.
Support Groups:

Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network -- www.foodallergy.org

Calling your health care provider:
  • Call your local emergency number, such as 911, if you have any serious or whole-body reactions (particularly wheezing or difficulty breathing) after eating a food.
  • If your doctor prescribed epinephrine for severe reactions, inject it as soon as possible, even before calling 911. The sooner you inject the epinephrine, the better.
  • Anyone who has had an allergic reaction to a food should be evaluated by an allergy specialist.
Prevention:

Breastfeeding may help prevent allergies. Otherwise, there is no known way to prevent food allergies except to delay introducing allergy-causing foods to infants until their gastrointestinal tract has had a chance to mature. The timing for this varies from food to food and from baby to baby.

Once an allergy has developed, carefully avoiding the offending food usually prevents further problems.

References:

Lack G. Clinical practice. Food allergy. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1252-1260.

Chafen JJ, Newberry SJ, Riedl MA, et al. Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review. JAMA. 2010 May 12;303(18):1848-56.


Review Date: 8/2/2012
Reviewed By: Stuart I. Henochowicz, MD, FACP, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, And Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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