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Anemia


Definition:

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

Other types of anemia include:

Symptoms:

You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. If the problem develops slowly, symptoms that may occur first include:

  • Feeling grumpy
  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

  • Blue color to the whites of the eyes
  • Brittle nails
  • Desire to eat ice or other non-food things (pica)
  • Light-headedness when you stand up
  • Pale skin color
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore tongue

Some types of anemia may have other symptoms.

Exams and Tests:

The doctor will perform a physical examination, and may find:

  • Heart murmur
  • Low blood pressure, especially when you stand up
  • Pale skin
  • Rapid heart rate

Some types of anemia may cause other findings on a physical exam.

Blood tests used to diagnose some common types of anemia may include:

Other tests may be done to find medical problems that can cause anemia.

Treatment:

Treatment should be directed at the cause of the anemia, and may include:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Corticosteroids or other medicines that suppress the immune system
  • Erythropoietin, a medicine that helps your bone marrow make more blood cells
  • Supplements of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other vitamins and minerals
Possible Complications:

Severe anemia can cause low oxygen levels in vital organs such as the heart, and can lead to a heart attack.

When to Contact a Medical Professional:

Call your health care provider if you have any symptoms of anemia, or any unusual bleeding.

References:

Marks PW. Approach to anemia in the adult and child. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al., eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 32.


Review Date: 2/24/2014
Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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