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Metabolic acidosis


Definition:

Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids.

Alternative Names:

Acidosis - metabolic

Causes:

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid, or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.

There are several types of metabolic acidosis:

Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA): Develops when acidic substances known as ketone bodies, build up in the body. This occurs with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes

Hyperchloremic acidosis: Results from excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from the body. This can occur with severe diarrhea

Lactic acidosis: Results from a buildup of lactic acid. It can be caused by:

  • Alcohol
  • Cancer
  • Exercising intensely
  • Liver failure
  • Medications, such as salicylates
  • Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock, heart failure, or severe anemia
  • Seizures

Other causes of metabolic acidosis include:

  • Kidney disease (distal renal tubular acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis)
  • Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol
  • Severe dehydration
Symptoms:

Most symptoms are caused by the underlying disease or condition that is causing the metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis itself usually causes rapid breathing. Confusion or lethargy may also occur. Severe metabolic acidosis can lead to shock or death. In some situations, metabolic acidosis can be a mild, chronic (ongoing) condition.

Exams and Tests:
  • Arterial blood gas
  • Serum electrolytes
  • Urine pH

Arterial blood gas analysis and a serum electrolytes test (such as a basic metabolic panel) will confirm acidosis is present and determine whether it is respiratory acidosis or metabolic acidosis.

Other test may be needed to determine the cause of the acidosis.

Treatment:

Treatment is aimed at the underlying condition. In some cases, sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) may be given to reduce the acidity of the blood.

Outlook (Prognosis):

The outlook will depend on the underlying disease causing the condition.

Possible Complications:

Very severe metabolic acidosis can lead to shock or death.

When to Contact a Medical Professional:

Seek medical help if you have symptoms of any disease that can cause metabolic acidosis.

Prevention:

Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by keeping type 1 diabetes under control.

References:

Seifter JL. Acid-base disorders.In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 120.


Review Date: 10/29/2013
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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